What is Kennel Cough? Canine cough isa multifactorial disease caused by a variety of infectious disease organisms that attack the upper respiratory tract throat, nose, trachea and bronchi and exacerbated by numerous non-organism factors such as poor-ventilation, overcrowding, low-immunity, high stress, high dust levels and dry air conditions low humidity. Common organisms implicated in kennel cough infections include the primary infectious disease organisms: Occasionally, canineherpesviruses, reoviruses, canine adenovirus type 1 and even canine distemper virus havebeen associated with kennel cough symptoms in dogs.
General features Importance Although some platyhelminths flatworms are free-living and nondestructive, many other species particularly the flukes and tapeworms parasitize humans, domestic animals, or both. In Europe, Australia, and North and South America, tapeworm infestations of humans have been greatly reduced as a consequence of routine meat inspection.
But where sanitation is poor and meat eaten undercooked, the incidence of tapeworm infestations is high. In the Baltic countries much of the population is infested with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum ; in parts of the southern United States a small proportion of the population may be infested with the dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana.
In Europe and the United States the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata is common because of the habit of eating undercooked steaks or other beef products.
Parasites in immature stages larvae can cause serious damage to the host. A larval stage of the gid parasite of sheep Multiceps multiceps usually lodges in the sheep brain. Fluid-filled hydatid cysts i.
In humans, hydatids of the liver, brain, or lung are often fatal. Infestation occurs only where people live in close association with dogs that have access to infested sheep for food. Thirty-six or more fluke species have been reported as parasitic in humans. Endemic local centres of infection occur in virtually all countries, but widespread infections occur in the Far East, Africa, and tropical America.
Many species are ingested as cysts, called metacercariae, in uncooked food—e. Free-swimming larvae called cercariae of blood flukes penetrate the human skin directly.
In humans these parasites and others listed below cause much misery and death. Control of certain flukes through the eradication of their mollusk hosts has been attempted but without much success. Schistosomiasis bilharziasis is a major human disease caused by three species of the genus Schistosoma, known collectively as blood flukes.
Africa and western Asia e. In the Far East, S. Among domestic animals, the sheep liver fluke Fasciola hepatica may cause debilitating and fatal epidemics liver rot in sheep. These animals become infected by eating metacercariae encysted on grass. Monogenea are common pests on fish in hatcheries and home aquariums.
Size range Most turbellarians are less than five millimetres 0. The largest of this class are the planarianswhich may reach 0. Trematodes are mostly between about one and 10 millimetres 0. The smallest cestodes are about one millimetre 0. The Monogenea range in length from 0. Aspidogastrea are from a few millimetres to millimetres in length.
Distribution and abundance In general, free-living flatworms the turbellarians can occur wherever there is moisture. Except for the temnocephalids, flatworms are cosmopolitan in distribution. They occur in both fresh water and salt water and occasionally in moist terrestrial habitats, especially in tropical and subtropical regions.
The temnocephalids, which are parasitic on freshwater crustaceans, occur primarily in Central and South America, Madagascar, New ZealandAustralia, and islands of the South Pacific. Some flatworm species occupy a very wide range of habitats.
One of the most cosmopolitan and most tolerant of different ecological conditions is the turbellarian Gyratrix hermaphroditus, which occurs in fresh water at elevations from sea level to 2, metres 6, feet as well as in saltwater pools.Parasites A parasite is an organism that depends on another organism, known as a host, for food and shelter.
As an example, tapeworms live in the digestive system  of a large variety of animals. Treatment and disposal of these sludges is dependent on the volume and characteristics of the sludges produced, which in turn are related to the type of treatment giving rise to the sludge.
over long distances for ultimate disposal, some form of volume reduction is usually necessary. From the above discussion, it is apparent that sludge. Parasites can cause disease in humans. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not.
The burden of these diseases often rests on communities in the tropics and subtropics, but parasitic infections also affect people in developed countries. a larval tapeworm that is at a stage in which the scolex is inverted in a sac, and that is typically found encysted in the muscle tissue of the host.
Strobila of a tapeworm (Labeled) The body of tapeworms has three regions: scolex, neck, and strobila. it produces is not only the common feature of modern diseases of aging, but also its major. “where you order and pay individually” zit, what is the going rate for turning up late, supporting the wrong side, “monitoring” ethnic cleansing, and fiddling the kids?