Kitayama, however, utilized two separate samples from Japan — one from the mainland and the other from the island of Hokkaido — to examine differences in individualism that may exist in Japanese culture.
Social psychology is about understanding individual behavior in a social context. It therefore looks at human behavior as influenced by other people and the social context in which this occurs. Social psychology is to do with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
Topics examined in social psychology include: History of Social Psychology Early Influences Aristotle believed that humans were naturally sociable, a necessity which allows us to live together an individual centered approachwhilst Plato felt that the state controlled the individual and encouraged social responsibility through social context a socio-centered approach.
This led to the idea of a group mind, important in the study of social psychology.
It emphasized the notion that personality develops because of cultural and community influences, especially through language, which is both a social product of the community as well as a means of encouraging particular social thought in the individual. Early Texts Texts focusing on social psychology first emerged at the start of the 20th century.
The first notable book in English was published by McDougall in An Introduction to Social Psychologywhich included chapters on emotion and sentiment, morality, character and religion, quite different to those incorporated in the field today. This belief is not the principle upheld in modern social psychology, however.
His book also dealt with topics still evident today, such as emotion, conformity and the effects of an audience on others. Murchison published The first handbook on social psychology was published by Murchison in A text by Klineberg looked at the interaction between social context and personality development by the s a number of texts were available on the subject.
By the study of social norms had developed, looking at how individuals behave according to the rules of society. This was conducted by Sherif Later Developments Much of the key research in social psychology developed following World War II, when people became interested in the behavior of individuals when grouped together and in social situations.
Key studies were carried out in several areas. Some studies focused on how attitudes are formed, changed by the social context and measured to ascertain whether change has occurred.
Thus the growth years of social psychology occurred during the decades following the s. Bandura Social Learning Theory Bandura introduced the notion that behavior in the social world could be modeled.
Children who had seen the adult rewarded were found to be more likely to copy such behavior. We are motivated to reduce this by either changing one of our thoughts, beliefs or attitudes or selectively attending to information which supports one of our beliefs and ignores the other selective exposure hypothesis.
Dissonance occurs when there are difficult choices or decisions, or when people participate in behavior that is contrary to their attitude. Dissonance is thus brought about by effort justification when aiming to reach a modest goalinduced compliance when people are forced to comply contrary to their attitude and free choice when weighing up decisions.
When the boys were asked to allocate points to others which might be converted into rewards who were either part of their own group or the out-group, they displayed a strong in-group preference. That is, they allocated more points on the set task to boys who they believed to be in the same group as themselves.
He believed that these were made based on three areas: When the learner a stooge got the answer wrong, they were told by a scientist that they had to deliver an electric shock. This did not actually happen, although the participant was unaware of this as they had themselves a sample real!
They were encouraged to increase the voltage given after each incorrect answer up to a maximum voltage, and it was found that all participants gave shocks up to v, with 65 per cent reaching the highest level of v. It seems that obedience is most likely to occur in an unfamiliar environment and in the presence of an authority figure, especially when covert pressure is put upon people to obey.
It is also possible that it occurs because the participant felt that someone other than themselves was responsible for their actions. There was some basic loss of rights for the prisoners, who were unexpectedly arrested, given a uniform and an identification number they were therefore deindividuated.
The study showed that conformity to social roles occurred as part of the social interaction, as both groups displayed more negative emotions and hostility and dehumanization became apparent.
Prisoners became passive, whilst the guards assumed an active, brutal and dominant role.Published: Mon, 5 Dec Introduction-This article is about the human behavior and the various factors which affects the human behavior. One of the factors that have a great impact on the behavior of human is the social environment and here all types of sociological effects are discussed.
Human behavior is studied by the specialized academic disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, social work, sociology, economics, and anthropology. Human behavior is experienced throughout an individual’s entire lifetime. The way we perceive ourselves in relation to the rest of the world influences our behaviors and our beliefs.
The opinions of others also affect our behavior and how we view ourselves. Social psychologists are interested in all aspects of interpersonal relationships and the ways that psychology can.
Social psychology typically explains human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations. Social psychologists, therefore, examine the factors that lead us to behave in a given way in the presence of others, as well as the conditions under which certain behaviors, actions, and feelings occur.
Group entitativity and similarity: Their differing patterns in perceptions of groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(7), – doi: /ejsp Deutsch, M.
(). An experimental study of the effects of cooperation and competition upon group processes. Human Relations, 2, – Forsyth, D. (). Social Cognition and Affect Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Cognition Chapter Summary 3.
The Self The Cognitive Self: The Self-Concept Learning Objectives. Cultural dimensions, gender, and the nature of self-concept: A fourteen-country study. International Journal of Psychology,