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Is poverty reduction an appropriate indicator of the success or failure of contemporary development strategies in Latin America?
Subsequently, the great depression of brought a decline on the credibility of the liberal economic model. Therefore, the period between until was characterized by state intervention, import-substitution industrialization ISI and a progressive process of urbanization on the developing countries.
Hence, it is clear the rise of neo-liberal precepts in the late twentieth century as pointed by Veltmeyer This passage was conceived by the World Bank as entailing three stages: These transformations throughout neoliberalism and global capital restructured capitalism as well as the relations between capital and labor in Latin America.
This paper argues, shortly, how the neorealism, capitalism and the aspects of global economy have influenced the entire world, especially the called underdeveloped countries.
Furthermore, shows the poverty reduction as an inappropriate indicator of the success or failure of contemporary development strategies in Latin America. Though, the inequality index can indicate the factual consequences of globalization process in the underdeveloped countries as the inaccessibility to education and fair opportunities.
The Issues Around Poverty The neo-liberal practice in fact was a throwback of the times when Latin American countries, exporters of primary products, imported manufactured goods from industrialized countries Hoffman; Portes,p. The industrialization and urbanization process are one of the most important factors in the description of modern society.
In the liberal view, society is formed by selfish and competitive individuals. However, liberals argue that there is a balance between the interests of individuals who generally tend to promote harmony Heywood,p.
The rise of production and the trade relations has changed the structure of society, resulting on the emergence of social class as the central organizing principle of society, and as consequence of this class structure, it intensified social problems such as poverty and inequality Heywood,p.
Moreover, from to the poverty rate tends to remain stagnant, close to what it was before the rise of neoliberalism and the consequences of globalization, as it is showed in Table 1 from ECLAC It is possible to note that the high level of poverty during the developed years tends to stagnate in a same level to the numbers that was before of this era.
The stagnation can be compared to the premise of the World Bank of increasing the influence of globalization on developing countries yields a larger development and consequently, less poverty. However, in reality this premise has not made poverty rates lower.
|Improving Youth Roles in Poverty Reduction | Free Essays - timberdesignmag.com||Sunday, 27 January Poverty reduction in developing countries depends almost exclusively on high economic growth Poverty reduction is a subject that has attracted a lot of debate in past three decades. Poverty is a global challenge that goes beyond social and political issues to include economic issues.|
|Poverty Alleviation Essay – Free Papers and Essays Examples||Sunday, 27 January Poverty reduction in developing countries depends almost exclusively on high economic growth Poverty reduction is a subject that has attracted a lot of debate in past three decades. Poverty is a global challenge that goes beyond social and political issues to include economic issues.|
ECLAC,table 1 Therefore, in order to understand why this situation is accepted by society in general, the principles of the World Bank for development can be directly linked to the framework established by the constructivist Antonio Gramsci. The author argues about the imposition of the ideology, where developing countries have to accept the global hegemony and its consequences as the cheap exploitation of labor.
Moreover, as the World Bank stands as strong advocate against poverty, it was the major driver of the causes of this fact Veltmeyer,p. However, the ECLAC approach shows that the more the world becomes globalized, the higher the levels of inequality. The contemporary definition of social class refers to the categories of population that have a differential access to the life development chances and power-conferring resources.
Consequently, this paper will aim to establish the main causes of the inequality between the new class structures. In this sense, social classes are the main source for understanding the conflict and the power in the strategic relations of social groups.
Also, the constant struggle regarding the accessibility of their members is visible and concerning Hoffman; Portes,p. Inequality as a better indicator Taking poverty reduction as an indicator of the success or failure of contemporary development strategies in Latin America LA is not an appropriate measure.
However, the inequality index is a better approach to show what is necessary to achieve development in the global and capitalist world. Thus, poverty is a consequence of social inequality and its ramifications.
The first evidence is the fact that several countries from LA has improved an income distribution between andbut because of economic aspects as the financial slowdown, the maintenance of this decline is more difficult, even with the fact that this economic problem in a great extent affects not only the poor people, but also the entire society.
In these neoliberal countries, analysts have documented the growing gap between the very rich and the very poor, with a rapidly shrinking middle class Veltmeyer,p. ECLAC,table 2 One of the most aggravating facts about the class structure is the control of the rich and powerful governments over the labor of others, control over scarce intellectual assets and over the means of production that makes them even more powerful and do not give the chance for the rise of the marginalized poor.
The dominant classes are comprised for professionals, senior executive and large and medium employers in all Latin American countries Hoffman; Portes,p.
The rise of social public spending can be one way to reduce the distance between the dominant class and marginalized population Veltmeyer,p. Therefore, is possible to realize in table 3 how the investments in social expends keeps stagnated since until with the largest rise was in social security and assistance.
This happened because, the rising of inequality between wages and the lack of employment for regulated jobs associated with the neoliberal economic model and other factors, resulted in the increase in crime, insecurity and possible reactions against the system, especially in large cities in Latin America Hoffman; Portes,p.
The marginalized class must have access to productive assets as credit, reform of the legal system, a fair competition, education and even a land reform. This can create more opportunities towards a real change in the context of inequality and consequently poverty generated by the contradictions of the neoliberal globalized capitalist system.
The neoliberalism in the governance and the inequality As important as the economic and social issues are around the system, the neoliberal reform has a great influence in the governance aspects.
This political transition from authoritarian governments to democratic governments often represented not only a simple change, but also as an act of aiming the maintenance of neoliberal practices in the country. However, this transition does not occur immediately.poverty essay - Microfinance and the Reduction of Poverty.
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Role Of Education In Decreasing Poverty Rate Economics Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: The direct effect of education on poverty reduction is through increasing the earnings/income or wages.
The indirect effect of education on poverty is important with respect to ‘human poverty’ because as education improves the income, the. Poverty reduction requires us to be clear about what we mean by poverty, who are the poor and what is the best way to help people escape poverty.
Jan 23, · Poverty reduction in developing countries depends almost exclusively on high economic growth Poverty reduction is a subject that has attracted a lot of debate in past three decades. Poverty is a global challenge that goes beyond social and political issues to include economic issues.
This essay seeks to dissect the issue of.
We will write a custom essay sample on Improving Youth Roles in Poverty Reduction specifically for you. for only $/page. Order Now. Indonesia, as a developing country in Asia, has more than thirty million people living under poverty line.
Government has been trying to actuate many program that seemingly can reduce the number of poverty.