Military strategies of the north in the civil war

The North held the edge on population and economy; South had the edge on morale. By the War's end: South's population and agricultural base, transportation system, and morale was shattered.

Military strategies of the north in the civil war

To get a better understanding of how the Civil War played out as it did, it is helpful to evaluate the strategies of both the North and the South in the Civil War.

The battles and events that took place were not random encounters or skirmishes but were instead, well-planned and thought-out strategies to secure supplies, keep lines of military communication open, prevent wide scale casualties and to gain and control more ground.

Both sides had Military strategies of the north in the civil war own ideas on how to accomplish this and the strategies they used have been widely scrutinized, studied, evaluated and recreated ever since. In fact, numerous Civil War strategy games are based on these very strategies and some types of battle reenactments, such as tactical battles or tactical events, use these strategies to try to defeat their opponents in recreations of the battles.

The following is an overview of the strategies used in the Civil War: Although the Union had a large army on its side, Scott doubted the scores of newly recruited soldiers would be ready for battle in time and instead proposed that they isolate the South from the rest of the southern states. The idea was that it would put an economic stranglehold on the Confederacy, isolate it from all sources of supply and allow for growth of anti-secessionist sentiments which would eventually cause the South to surrender without the use of violence and would therefore save more lives.

Cartoon map illustrating Gen. The plan received a lot of criticism and was originally rejected because it was deemed too slow and cumbersome, according to the book Historical Dictionary of the U. At the same cabinet meeting, Brigadier General Irvin McDowell, commander of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, proposed to attack and destroy the Confederate army assembling in the vicinity of Manassas Junction.

What were the strategies for the north and south in the civil war

The result would be Union defeat at First Bull Run. Ideas that once seemed far-fetched — such as wrecking the Southern economy by preventing cotton from reaching market and causing slaves to rebel or flee their cruel overseers began to make sense as Northerners realized that their foes would not yield until deprived of the means to wage war.

In addition, controlling the river meant the Union army could isolate Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana from the other Confederate states and split the Confederacy in two. The Union naval blockade was established in but was ineffective, allowing around one in three blockade runners to break through.

Military strategies of the north in the civil war

These aspects of the Anaconda plan were important, but it was still necessary to destroy the Confederate army in order to force the South to surrender. Although Lincoln had very limited military experience, he felt very strongly that the Union should take advantage of its large army and aggressively engage the Confederates simultaneously in different locations to overwhelm them, according to a letter he wrote to his generals Buell and Halleck: Grant to the position of Lieutenant-General in March ofnaming him General-in-chief of the Armies of the United States in the process.

He believed that hard fought battles were a mercy to the army, and that heavy lists of killed and wounded went far to reduce the totals of those sacrificed in war compared with the losses by disease through inactivity and exposure consequent upon a long-drawn-out policy of manuevering and defensive warfare.

Grant believed in strategy, but it was a strategy which involved fighting the enemy, not circumventing him. The new commander saw that the only road to peace was a destruction of the rebel armies. This further deprived the Confederates of the food and supplies they desperately needed.

The invading Union forces slowly began to close in on and isolate the various units of Confederate troops across the South, forcing them to surrender. At first, the Confederacy simply wanted to survive and defend its right to secede.

They had no interest in invading Union territory. As the Union army went on the offense and prepared to invade the South, the Confederate army went on the defense and prepared themselves for attack. This is referred to as a strategy of attrition — a strategy of winning by not losing and simply wearing out the enemy by prolonging the war and making it too costly to continue.

The problem with this strategy is the governors, congressmen and residents of the various border states along the Confederate perimeter requested the presence of small armies in those states to prevent against Union invasion. This led to small armies being dispersed around the Confederate perimeter along the Arkansas-Missouri border, at several points on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, along the Tennessee-Kentucky border, and in the Shenandoah Valley and western Virginia as well as at Manassas.

There was also a growing demand within the Confederacy to be more aggressive and attack the Union army before they could attack them. This backfired though when Europe instead chose to get their cotton from India and Egypt.

Yet, an article by Terry L. Jones in the New York Times argues that the lack of funds caused by their withholding of cotton was only a minor issue for the Confederacy and did not ultimately cause its defeat: If the Confederates had sent as much cotton as possible to Europe before the blockade became effective instead of hording it to create a shortage, they could have established lines of credit to purchase war material.

This argument is true, but it misses the point. While the Confederates did suffer severe shortages by mid-war, they never lost a battle because of a lack of guns, ammunition or other supplies. They did lose battles because of a lack of men, and a broken-down railway system made it difficult to move troops and materials to critical points.

Cotton diplomacy would not have increased the size of the rebel armies, and an increasingly effective Union blockade would have prevented the importation of railroad iron and other supplies no matter how much credit the Confederates accumulated overseas.

Lee was determine to do so after his surprising victory at the Peninsula and at Second Manassas in Lee knew the South lacked the industry to sustain a long war and he believed invading the North after his recent victories would sustain a psychological blow to the Union, according to an article by Scott Hartwig on the Civil War Trust website:Strategies of the north The northern states tried to prevent southerners from getting the goods they needed during the war.

They shut down the ports along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico to prevent the south from shipping their cotton to Europe. According to the Women in Military Service For America Memorial Foundation website, around African-American nurses served in military hospitals in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina during the war.

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Military strategies of the north in the civil war

the military strategy of the north was fourfold:to blockade southern ports to cut off supplies from Europe, to break the confederacy in two at the Mississippi River, to destroy the transportation and communication systems of the confederacy thus crippling morale and to attack the confederate capital.

[table striped="true" responsive="true"] Paper copies of Civil War pension records can now be requested online. [/table] Table of Contents Part 1: .

Military strategies in north and south during civil war by cara hasty on Prezi

Operations (or campaigns) are what military forces mount in an effort to implement military strategy. Importantly, this includes the activities of military forces before and after combat. While no one from the Civil War era would have been familiar with this exact terminology, they often thought this way.

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