The responses of individual candidates are reproduced exactly and include original errors of grammar, spelling and punctuation. The Scheme of Assessment The scheme of assessment for the Advanced Subsidiary qualification is based on two examination papers. Paper 1 is presented in three sections and there are two essay-type questions in each section. Candidates are required to answer two questions, chosen from different sections, and the examination is of 1 hour 30 minutes duration.
Participant observation In participant observation the observer participates in ongoing activities and records observations.
Participant observation extends beyond naturalistic observation because the observer is a "player" in the action. The Participation observation essay is used in many studies in Anthropology and Sociology. Often the researcher actually takes on the role being studied; for example, living in a commune, becoming a firefighter, enrolling in flight training school, working in a mental hospital or passing as a patientbeing a cocktail waitress, living among the mushroom hunters of the northwest, or joining a cult.
A related approach is ethnography — the study of particular people and places. These need not be exotic locations. Ethnography, sometimes referred to as field work or qualitative sociology. It is a more of an approach than a single research method in that it generally combines several research methods including interviews, observation, and physical trace measures.
Good ethnography truly captures a sense of the place and peoples studied. There are obvious trade-offs in participant observation research. The researcher is able to get an "insider" viewpoint and the information may be much more rich than that obtained through systematic observation.
It has probably already occurred to you that there are potential problems. Consider the two sources of error in systematic research: These difficulties are magnified in participant observation.
There is the problem of "going native" which means becoming so involved with and sympathetic to the group of people being studied, that objectivity is lost. Older adults The qualitative - quantitative divide Systematic observation uses clearly-defined categories often with operational definitions and collects quantitative numerical data.
In contrast the data of participant observation are extensive field notes describing events and impressions. They may also include extensive in-depth interviews. Thus the data are more likely to be qualitiative - description that is NOT reducible to numbers.
Within the scholarly community there are fierce defenders of one or the other of these perspectives -- quantitative versus qualitative. They are fond of pointing out the limitations of the alternate view. The concern is that reducing observations to mere counts results in an unforgivable loss of information.
|Popular Topics||Introduction Participant observation, for many years, has been a hallmark of both anthropological and sociological studies. In recent years, the field of education has seen an increase in the number of qualitative studies that include participant observation as a way to collect information.|
|Sociology and Participant Observation - New York Essays||Evans-Pritchard and Margaret Mead  in the first half of the twentieth century. It emerged as the principal approach to ethnographic research by anthropologists and relied on the cultivation of personal relationships with local informants as a way of learning about a culture, involving both observing and participating in the social life of a group.|
|Introduction Participant observation, for many years, has been a hallmark of both anthropological and sociological studies.|
|Participant observation - Wikipedia||Evans-Pritchard and Margaret Mead  in the first half of the twentieth century.|
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The quantitative number lover points out the arbitrariness of personal descriptions of events and how they are subject to bias. Arguments have gone on for decades and will probably continue for many more. Both sides make important points and reveal that no single approach or technique has a corner on the truth.
Multiple methods are more likely to produce an accurate view of behavior.
Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. A good researchers selects the method most appropriate to the problem at hand, and uses several different methods if possible. Systematically-acquired data - clearly-designated decision rules, operational definitions, and proper sampling procedures -- permits generalization to similar situations.
Narrative description of a qualitative sort provides depth and richness to our understanding. Quantification and qualitative description are not mutually exclusive; both are possible.
Stresses on the observer Participant observation and ethnography are probably the most stressful research methods for the researcher.
People with whom one is interacting may make unreasonable demands.
As a participant, one may observe illegal behavior. Ethical dilemmas are commonplace in participant observation.Ethnography relies on participation as well as observation by researchers. This Essay Will Demonstrate My Knowledge and Understanding of the Contribution to Qualitative Research to Psychology Through the Discussion of Published Qualitative Research.
Sep 01, · The Advantages and Disadvantages of Participant Observation as a Research Method This essay will examine how participant observation is used as a research method.
In the main body of this essay, this idea will be addressed by pointing out advantages and . We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Participation Observation Research. Participant observation is a method of collecting qualitative data in social research.
This method involves the immersion of the researcher in the subject matter so that it can be observed in its natural setting. Participant Observation essaysI am in the Williowbrook Mall eating area.
The store in front of me is the Great American Cookie Company, to the left of me is a baseball cap store called Lids, to my right there are chairs and tables, and behind me is a pizza place called Sbarro.
There aren't re. Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research. It is a widely used methodology in many disciplines, particularly cultural anthropology, European ethnology, sociology, communication studies, human geography and social psychology.