Free Press Critical for Free, Democratic Society An essay from the prestigious journal, Columbia Journalism Reviewnotes the crucial role of free media and the need for public education in society to maintain democracy: But the founders knew that a free press would be worth little if the people could not read it, so public education became one of the great obsessions of the leaders of the early republic. Instead, he wrote, education was vital to the maintenance of a free society. This concern with education was widespread in the founding generation, and Thomas Jefferson famously listed the establishment of the University of Virginia as one of the three great accomplishments of his life he omitted his presidency from the list.
Part of that evolution involves the change in who is eligible to be a leader. In looking at leadership opportunities for females, the evolution has been slow.
In Rhodes book, entitled Women and Leadership she looked at the history of women leaders, from the beginning of the 20th century going back years and found a total of only female leaders worldwide, with many of those being considered leaders based on their connections to powerful males as mothers, wives, daughters, or mistresses.
Looking specifically at the United States USthe Presidential election highlighted both the progress women have made and some potential double standards in this country.
The results of the election, between Donald Trump and Hillary Rodham Clinton, were close, with Clinton actually winning the popular vote, but they also highlighted how many people judge men and women differently as leaders . This double standard becomes additionally perplexing when you consider that in a poll commissioned by the White House Project, a majority of Americans indicated they were comfortable with women as top leaders in all sectors, from academia and business to the media and military .
What it seems to indicate is while men and women feel they are not biased in looking at women as leaders, they actually are. Working Women The history of women and working goes as far back as human history.
However, for much of human history, women have been relegated to specific types of work that were often unpaid and deemed less significant . This is important to note, as the issue with women in leadership roles has to do with perceptions and stereotypes of women that go back to the early days of human existence where the man was the strong hunter-gatherer and defender while the woman tended to the home and the family and were often considered naturally inferior .
Going back as far as Ancient Rome, it is noted how some women were able to manipulate their husbands, lovers, or other men to impact decisions . In other words, women throughout history may not have often risen to the top echelon in organizations, but they still found ways to instruct, guide, and direct decisions, often without men even being fully aware.
It focused on promoting the welfare of wage-earning women. The establishment of this bureau ties to World War I when women were needed in large numbers to work in factories and other industries to support the war based on men leaving these jobs to serve in battle.
The Equal Pay Act of and the Civil Rights Act of were both supposed to help end gender discrimination in the workplace by making it illegal to hire or compensate differently based on ethnicity or gender.
However, their ascent to executive positions continues to be very slow even with as much experience and more education than their male peers. As of the beginning ofwomen only account for 5. The US government is no better. In the th US Congress, women make up Hillary Rodman Clinton was the first woman to be nominated by a major party for the Presidency inalmost years after women were granted the right to vote .
What all of these examples reiterate is that while women have joined the workforce in vast numbers for over half a century, across all industries, they still struggle to rise-up within organizations, even with several generations of workforce exposure to women in a variety of roles.
As women have joined the workforce and attempted to move up the ladder in their careers, there have been, and continue to be, barriers. Major contributing factors to these barriers are gender stereotypes as well as leadership stereotypes rooted in the masculine ideal of leaders, since for much of history that has been the example.
US organizations are going to need a resupply of capable leaders as the workforce shrinks, and therefore need to ensure they are drawing and developing all capable leaders regardless of gender . This would seem to indicate that the struggle women have in ascending to top positions in US organizations must involve other factors including potential prejudice and unintentional bias towards women and is not due to lack of educational preparedness.
Family obligations play a role in work-life balance, particularly for women . Statement of the Problem Why do women continue to struggle to get to executive roles within US organizations? The prevalence of gender-based stereotypes in the leadership domain may place females in situations where they risk fulfilling, or being judged in light of, these negative stereotypes.Concerned Women for America (CWA) is the nation’s largest public policy women’s organization with a rich history of over 35 years of helping our members across the country bring Biblical principles into all levels of public policy.
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The United States ranks first in women’s educational attainment on the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index of countries. The United State's Most Powerful Women More powerful women live and work in the United States than any other country. But how do American women stack up against each other?Founder: B.
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